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Pure Indian Classical Music
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Evolution Of Music > Raags > Raag Details > Scale > Taal > Glossary > Instrument > Sarod > Sitar > Tabla/Mridamgam > Bhupali > Khamaj > Alhaiya Bilawal > Durga > Alankars >  

Glossary :


abhog: the fourth section of a dhrupad 

achal swar: a non variable (having neither flat nor sharp) note 

aksar: a unit of time 

alankar: a repetitive melodic design 

aalap: free extemporization of raag 

alpatva: scarcity of occurrence of a note in a raag 

ams: the most important note in a raag or jati 

andolan: 'swinging' a note; a variety of gamaka 

ang: the characteristic phrase of a raag 

anibaddh: free, open; not bound by taal 

arati: moving lamps in a rotary manner in front of idol or guru 

ashtapadi: a type of song with eight stanzas 

asthayi: (sthayi) the first section of a song 

avaroh: the descending pattern of a raag 

bahutva: multiplicity of occurrence of a note in a raag or jati 

bani: a school or style of music 

besoor: out of tune 

bhajan: a devotional song 

bhatiyali: boatman's song from Bengal 

bhaav: 1. emotion 2. mime in kathak dance 

bole-tan tan: using the words of the song 

cchand: 1. prosody 2. a kind of song or chant 

cchota kheyal: a short kheyal sung in medium or fast tempo 

chaugun: quadrupling the tempo 

cheez: a classical song in Hindustani music 

chikari: drone strings in sitar,Sarod and such instruments 

dhatu: the musical structure of a song 

dhrupad: a type of composition in Hindustani music with emphasis on rhythm and alap preceding the song 

drut(lay): fast tempo 

dugun: doubling the original tempo 

gamak: a grace:glide,trill,swing etc 

gana: a song or chant; to sing or chant 

gandhar gram: one of the three ancient standard scales 

gat: a rhythmic composition for instruments 

gati: movement; the divisional aspect of a time unit 

gayaki: the manner or style of redition 

gayaki ang: the style of instrumental music, imitative of the vocal 

ghan vadya: solid instruments - plates sticks etc 

gharana: a 'school' of music, a musical dialect 

ghazal: a urdu/Persian lyrical poem 

gram: an ancient standard scale 

guru: preceptor 

guru shishya parampara: Shishya (student) learns from the Guru by staying at his place. It is generally one to one learning method. Different from today's classroom teaching. 

janya: derived; scale or raag derived from the janaka 

jati: a variety of raag (ouduva,shadava,sampoorna etc) 

jhala: a form, usually in a fast tempo, using the drone strings; only for instruments 

jode: a medium tempo musical progression after alap, played on instruments 

kajari: a folk song from uttar pradesh 

kampan shake; a gamaka 

khand: section of taal 

komal: (swara) flat (note) 

laghu: a duration of one short syllable 

laya: tempo 

madhya lay: medium tempo 

madhya saptak: middle octave 

mandra: the lower octave 

matra: a time unit 

nibaddh: form of music bound by taal 

nyas: the ending note of a jati 

oudav (jati): pentatonic (consists of 5 swaras) 

pakad: manner, style 

pallavi: an intricate presentation of a raag with text and taal, in Karnatak music 

raag,ragini: melodic seed idea capable of extempore growth;

sampoorna: complete (all 7 swaras used when used with jati) 

sanchari: the third section of dhrupad 

saptak: a gamut of seven notes 

shadava: (jati) hexatonic (consists of 6 swaras) 

sruti: a microtonal interval 

sthayi: the first section or burden of a song 

swar: 'note', the mental quality of a tonal interval 

syahi: black paste applied to drum heads 

taal: a cyclic arrangement of time units, with defined sections 

tan: a fast musical phrase 

tant: ang style of instrumental rendition 

taar: the upper octave 

tarab: resonant strings in a instrument 

tarana: a composition type using non-semantic words 

tat: vadya stringed instruments 

teevra: sharp note, higher than the natural 

thaat: a scale 

theka: the definitive drum strokes forming the basic notation of a taal 

thumri: a lyrical form of singing 

tigun: tripling the tempo 

vadya: instrument 

vakra: crooked or tortuous 

varna: a musical phrase 

vivadi: a note not usually admitted in a raag; usually translated as dissonant 

yaksh gaan: a variety of dance-drama of andhra and Karnatak 

yati: prosodic-lexical and temporal arrangement